Glossary of Terms
Because of the nature of our business, we frequently use acronyms and abbreviations. We also use terminology and technical terms relating to legislation and regulatory processes. We’ve put together a glossary below that spells out abbreviations while also providing some explanations.
The ABE is a professional organisation for persons who work in the field of construction technology.
Accreditation Schemes are the name given to schemes in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland. The Schemes accredit energy assessors and oversee their work in preparing and submitting EPCs, DECs, and ACRs (Air Conditioning Inspection Reports) (ACIR).
Accredited Construction Details were created to help the construction sector meet the performance standards required to certify compliance with the Building Regulations' energy efficiency requirements (Part L). SAP10 will no longer allow for these to be used and will enforce bespoke PSI modelling.
The Approved Code of Practice (ACoP) is a legal document that provides practical guidance to all construction workers. If you follow the ACoP's instructions, you will be doing enough to comply with the law in the specific areas where it provides guidance.
The Association of Chief Police Officers brings together chief police officers from England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, providing a professional platform for sharing ideas and best practises, coordinating resources, and assisting in the delivery of effective policing that keeps the public safe.
The Building Regulation - Sound Resistance was amended to match changes in the Building Regulations and went into effect on October 1, 2010.
An AI is a skilled and experienced building control expert or consultancy in the private sector who can assist developers, designers, and contractors in obtaining Building Regulations approval.
The volume flow per hour (m3h) of air supplied to the space per square metre (m2) of envelope area for an internal to external pressure difference of 50 Pa is stated as 25 mhr-1 m2 at 50 Pa.
The term given to the same function in certain police forces is Architectural Liaison Officer (for your area), which is the same as the Crime Prevention Design Advisor.
In 1973, the Association of Noise Consultants was founded to represent the interests of noise consultants in the United Kingdom.
APEL is a method for people to get formal acknowledgement for skills and knowledge they already have. A person's learning and experience may be publicly recognised and considered when applying for a course, requesting exemption from certain elements of a new course, or qualifying for an award.
ARLA is a professional organisation dedicated only to lettings.
Is the value used to calculate the DER, and it is based on either a specific measurement of the home in question or measurements of other dwellings of the same type.
A non-continuously occupied internal space within a building, sometimes many storeys high, surrounded on at least one side by occupied spaces configured to the activity database's requirements. Building features (such as glazing) may or may not surround the atrium (although there may need to be something for smoke control in case of fire). The atrium is not kept in the same state as the neighbouring spaces, as determined by the activity database. The atrium's technical purpose can be one or more of the following:-
The British Institute of Non-Destructive Testing (BINDT) has a special interest group called the Air Tightness Testing and Measurement Association that deals with air permeability in all types of buildings.
Internal or inter-pane (but not exterior) blinds that are motorised and controlled by automatic sensors so that the position can be changed to manage sun gain and/or glare. As heat gain and/or daylight levels decline, the control regime must open the blinds to maximise the use of these natural resources in each zone. Outside shading devices can be modelled using iSBEM in the description of each window; however, SBEM does not presently simulate the re-radiation effects of blinds where solar gain has entered the area before being controlled by the shading device.
The BBA is a UK-based organisation that certifies new building materials and installers. Specifiers and other industry decision-makers recognise Agrément Certificates as confirmation that the products covered by them have been objectively examined, will allow compliance with Building Regulations to be attained, and will last for a predetermined period of time.
The Building Control Board (BCB) is responsible for enforcing building standards and regulations in England, Wales, Northern Ireland, and Scotland.
The BFCMA is a trade association for factory-made chimney products in the United Kingdom that works closely with the government, public agencies, and other organisations to promote the chimney and flue industry's interests.
The BFRC is a national rating system for the thermal performance of fenestration goods in the United Kingdom. The rating system is recognised by building laws all over the United Kingdom.
The BRE Trust Companies, BRE and BRE Global, provide sustainability and innovation across the built environment and beyond through research, consultancy, training, testing, and certification.
BREDEM is a model for calculating the energy requirements of domestic structures on a monthly or annual basis, as well as estimating savings from energy conservation measures. BREDEM 9 is the basis for SAP.
BREEAM is a green building assessment system developed in the United Kingdom by the Building Research Establishment (BRE). It has expanded in breadth and geographical reach since its birth, and is now exported in various forms all over the world. LEED North America, Green Star in Australia, and HQE in France are some of the other regions' equivalents. BRE and CSTB (the French Building Research Centre) have signed an agreement of understanding to align BREEAM and HQE.
A biodiverse roof is one in which the growing medium has been purposefully chosen to allow native plant species to colonise the roof over time.
The British Standard Institute (BSi) creates British Standards.
The Scottish building laws were previously written by SBS – Scottish Building Standards, and SBSA – Scottish Building Standards Agency.
The Building Services Research and Information Association is a consulting, testing, and research firm. Construction, building services, and facilities management are among our specialties.
Is a naturally occurring gas that is among the most prevalent greenhouse gases in the environment. Carbon dioxide is also produced as a result of industrial operations, the burning of fossil fuels, and changes in land use.
The metric system used to compare the relative climate impacts of various greenhouse gases. Any greenhouse gas' CO2e quantity is the amount of carbon dioxide that would yield the same amount of global warming potential.
The whole set of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions created by an organisation, event, or product is referred to as its carbon footprint. It is frequently represented in terms of the amount of carbon dioxide, or its equivalent in other GHGs, emitted for ease of reporting.
When the net greenhouse gas emissions connected with a business unit, product, service, or process are zero as a result of a combination of direct (internal) emission reductions and indirect (external) emission offsetting efforts.
Offsets are measured in carbon offsets, which are the 'currency' of the industry. Carbon offsets are measured in metric tonnes of CO2e reductions, with one carbon offset equaling one tonne of emissions reductions achieved through carefully selected and validated carbon initiatives. Carbon offsets can be obtained voluntarily or in order to comply with regulatory requirements.
A combined heat and power system (CHP) is a heating system that can also generate electricity.
The CIAT is a group of people who work and study in the field of architectural technology.
The CIBSE is a professional organisation dedicated to advancing the science, art, and practise of building services engineering by providing information and education to its members and the general public.
The CIOB is a membership organisation for building professionals who work in any aspect of the construction industry.
The CLG is the government department in England and Wales responsible for Building Regulations, Housing, Planning, Urban Policies, Sustainable Communities, and providing EPCs, among other things.
A CML Certificate is a one-page document signed by a professional construction consultant verifying (in brief) that he or she has visited the construction site on a regular basis and that the property has been erected to a satisfactory standard and in accordance with the drawings.
Means advancing a fixed building service from a state of static completion to working order after installation, replacement, or alteration of the whole or part of the system, by testing and adjusting as necessary to ensure that the system as a whole uses no more fuel and power than is reasonable in the circumstances, without compromising the need to comply with health and safety requirements. Setting-to-work, regulation (that is, testing and adjusting repeatedly) to achieve the specified performance, calibration, setting up, and testing of the associated automatic control systems, and recording of the system settings and performance are all part of the commissioning process for each system.
Personnel undertaking work that has an impact on product quality must be competent, as evidenced by their education, training, skills, and prior experience. With minimal supervision, a skilled person can operate satisfactorily. Under ISO 17024, BRE is accredited to administer a competent person's programme for CSH to assure competence, accuracy, and professional service while providing CSH to clients.
CPD stands for Continuing Professional Development, and it is a system that demonstrates continuing professional development throughout your career. It's typically preserved as a record of any additional learning you've done after completing your academic degrees.
A central heating and hot water unit (CPSU) is a single appliance that supplies both space heating and domestic hot water. A burner and a primary store with a capacity of more than 70 litres are included in a CPSU.
A design and access statement (DAS) is a brief report that goes along with and supports a planning application. They give applicants a framework to describe how a proposed development is a good fit for the site and its surroundings, as well as show that it can be easily accessed by potential users.
Now known as MHCLG. Local government, communities and neighbourhoods, regeneration, housing, planning, building and the environment, and fire and rescue are all areas where the Department makes policy. It plays a vital role in encouraging economic growth and supporting local development.
A DEA is a trained and qualified person who can analyse existing domestic residences and generate EPCs for use in the sale and rental markets.
The Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) was established in October 2008, bringing together energy policy previously handled by BERR (Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform) and DEFRA (Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs).
Display energy certificates for public buildings are produced by an energy assessor.
DEFRA is responsible for a wide range of environmental issues in England and Wales, and originally owned the Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP). The Department of Energy and Climate Change now owns SAP (DECC).
The DER is calculated using SAP software, which is used to ensure that building regulations are followed. It's the annual CO2 emissions per unit floor area for space heating, water heating, ventilation, and lighting, minus the emissions avoided by energy generation technologies, represented in kilogrammes per square metre per year.
Is the target value defined during the design stage, and must always be no worse than the limiting value.
A damp-proof course (DPC) is a course of impermeable material installed in the foundation walls of a building near the ground to prevent dampness from rising into the structure.
The lead designer, if one has been designated, usually organises design team meetings, which may involve all or part of the design team. Sub-meetings may be convened to address specific areas of the design, such as the structure or building services.
DSMs are systems that should be utilised instead of the SBEM to create energy estimates for building regulation approval and EPCs for complex buildings.
Is a self-contained unit intended to house a single family. Buildings that only contain rooms for residential use, such as nursing homes, student housing, and similar, are not considered dwellings, and Approved Document L2A applies in these circumstances.
Enhanced Construction Details were created to help the construction sector meet the performance levels required to demonstrate compliance with the Building Regulations' energy efficiency requirements (Part L).
The BREEAM version for new homes was initially introduced in 2000 and is now being replaced in England by the Code for Sustainable Homes for new dwellings. EcoHomes continues to operate in the UK for restored homes and in Scotland for all residences.
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a method of compiling a systematic analysis of the potential significant environmental effects of a planned development.
The EIR, which is displayed on an EPC, is a rating of the home's environmental effect. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions should be reduced in better-rated dwellings. A property that emits very little carbon would receive an A, whereas a property that pollutes the environment would receive a G.
Before producing an Energy Certificate, an assessor gathers required information and performs calculations and/or investigations.
All certificates generated under EPBR, including EPCs, DECs, and ACIRs, are referred to as EPCs.
Regulations 4A, 17C, 17D, and 17E of the Building Regulations, as well as Part L of Schedule 1 to the Building Regulations, are defined.
The entire area of all floors, walls, and ceilings bordering the internal volume is known as the envelope area of the building, or measured section of the building. This covers all walls and floors below the level of the external ground. This area is calculated using overall interior dimensions, with no deductions applied for the size of junctions between internal walls, floors, and ceilings and outside walls, floors, and ceilings. The party wall is part of a terraced house's enclosure (s). The floors, walls, and ceilings that are shared with adjacent flats make up the envelope area of a flat in a multi-story building.
The EPBD is a European directive that, by the 4th of January 2009, was to be implemented throughout all member states, requiring the issuance of Energy Performance Certificates (EPCs) when buildings are constructed, sold, or rented.
The Energy Performance of Buildings Regulations (EPBR) are based on the notion of making a building's energy efficiency transparent and recommending energy efficiency upgrades.
The energy and CO2 emission performance rating of a home is recorded in an EPC, which is calculated using SAP for homes. On a scale of A to G, Energy Performance Certificates show a home's energy efficiency. Band A houses are the most energy-efficient and should have the lowest fuel expenditures. The Certificate also reflects the home's environmental impact on a scale of A to G. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions should be reduced in better-rated dwellings.
The EST is a non-profit organisation that offers free, unbiased energy-saving advice. Our recommendations can help you save money while also combating climate change by lowering carbon dioxide emissions in your house.
In the International System of Units, a joule is the derived unit of energy, and a Gigajoule is 109 Joule.
Roof gardens; biodiverse roofs; brown roofs; public and private amenity spaces; extensive, intensive, and semi-intensive roofs; roof gardens; biodiverse roofs; brown roofs; extensive, intensive, and semi-intensive roofs; extensive, intensive, and semi-intensive roofs; extensive, intensive, and semi-intensive roofs; extensive, intensive, and semi-intensive roofs; extensive, intensive, and semi-intensive roofs; extensive, intensive, and semi-
Greenhouse gases are gases that absorb and emit infrared radiation in the atmosphere. The greenhouse gas impact is mostly caused by this process. Water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone are the principal greenhouse gases.
In the United Kingdom, the Green Roof Organisation is the industry platform for green roof development and promotion. The NFRC facilitates GRO, which serves as the technical arm of Livingroofs.org.
GSHP utilises the energy stored in the earth as a result of solar radiation. Through a network of ground collectors, heat exchangers, and the utilisation of circulating fluid, heat pumps capture heat from one source and release it at a higher temperature.
The Home Builders' Federation (HBF) is a membership organisation that represents the home building industry in England and Wales.
HETAS is the government's official body for approving solid fuel residential heating appliances, fuels, and services. Boilers, cookers, open fires and stoves, and room heaters are among the products it approves.
A HLP is a value calculated using the external surface area, the insulation (U value) of those surfaces, and the airtightness of a dwelling.
A person who lives in a house with one or more other persons.
If people such as cleaners, wardens, and caretakers are employed to work in the common sections of flats and similar buildings, the Workplace (Health, Safety, and Welfare) Regulations 1992, as amended, apply. There are various regulations in these Regulations that have an impact on building design. The Building Regulations currently cover the majority of the obligations, although see Workplace health, safety, and welfare, Workplace (Health, Safety, and Welfare) Regulations 1992, Approved Code of Practice and advice, HSE bulletin L24, HMSO, 1996 for further details.
The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is the UK's national independent watchdog for work-related health, safety, and illness. It is an independent regulator that operates in the public interest to prevent work-related death and serious injury in the workplace.
There are numerous product certification schemes in the United Kingdom. Such schemes certify that the material complies with the standards of a recognised standard that is appropriate for the intended usage. Materials that aren't certified may still meet the requirements of a relevant standard.
The Chartered Body for Health and Safety Professionals is the IOSH. We are the world's largest professional health and safety organisation, with over 39,000 individual members.
ISBEM is a free software programme for calculating the energy efficiency of non-domestic buildings (commercial buildings)
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is a non-profit organisation
The international technical phrase for defining electric and/or motive power, symbol J, is a measure of energy (see kWh). One Joule is equal to one Watt for one second (1J=1Ws); for a more detailed definition, see Wikipedia.
The kilowatt-hour (kWh) is a useful measure for measuring electricity (1 kWh = 1000 Watt-hour). For example, one hour of use of a 60 watt light bulb consumes 0.06 kilowatt hours of electricity.
An international protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that compels signatories from industrialised countries to reach greenhouse gas emission reduction targets compared to 1990 levels.
A local administrative unit is referred to as a LA.
To comply with the Building Regulations, LABC encourages the design and construction of buildings that are safe, accessible, and ecologically friendly. The LABC educates the public, developers, designers, and contractors about local authority building control. It also collaborates with trade associations, manufacturers, distributors, research institutions, test houses, and professional organisations to promote building innovation.
The company that was formally in charge of the management of the EPC Registers in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland. These are now in the hands of the government.
When a carbon offset project's reduction in emissions in one area results in an increase in emissions in another location outside of the project's scope, such as when preserving a forest in one region moves logging activities to another forest.
Lighting with a low energy demand is referred to as LEL. These lights include compact fluorescent and fluorescent lights, which should not exceed 40 lumens per circuit watt to comply with Building Regulations.
Lifetime Dwellings are typical homes that incorporate 16 Design Criteria that may be implemented uniformly to new homes at a low cost. Each design element enhances the home's comfort and convenience while also accommodating the changing demands of individuals and families at various stages of life.
A light pipe is a tube or pipe with internal reflective surfaces that directs daylight into an interior space.
A lightwell is a space enclosed by a building's walls but with no roof or glazing above it. As a result, it resembles a courtyard in appearance. The lightwell's surrounding walls are open to the elements.
In regions where there is no mains gas, LPG can be used to fuel gas appliances. The most popular technique for storing LPG reserves is in a storage tank.
Micro CHP, photovoltaic panels, solar panels, and wind turbines are all examples of LZC energy sources that are increasingly being put in buildings.
Micro CHP, photovoltaic panels, solar panels, and wind turbines are examples of LZT energy sources that are increasingly being installed in buildings.
From April 2018, the (Minimum Energy Efficiency Standards) Regulations make it illegal in England and Wales to let properties (including commercial and domestic) that do not attain an Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) rating of 'E'. Official government data can be accessed here (here)
A mechanical exhaust ventilation system (MEV) is a fan-driven ventilation system that solely extracts air from a building.
The Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government (previously the Department for Communities and Local Government) was charged with making wonderful places to live and work, as well as giving local residents more authority over what happens in their communities.
This Approved Document L1A should be used for assistance in relation to each individual residence when developing a house as part of a larger building that comprises other forms of housing, frequently referred to as a mixed-use complex. The non-dwelling components of such structures, such as heated common rooms and, in the case of mixed-use developments, the commercial or retail space, are covered by Approved Document L2A.
MVHR is a mechanical ventilation system that removes internal air while recycling the heat back into the structure.
NCD is a new construction dwelling that uses full SAP methodology rather than RdSAP.
A Non Domestic Energy Assessor (NDEA) is a person who has been accredited by the government. Conducting an energy assessment, creating an EPC, and filing the EPC with their accreditation system are all tasks that energy assessors are accountable for.
The NFOPP is the umbrella organisation for a number of membership organisations, including NAEA, ARLA, and a number of smaller organisations.
Can be described as the presence of proper systems, controls, and operating strategy that allows for nightly ventilation (passive and/or mechanical) to cool the exposed building mass and so counter daytime cooling demands. If no such operation and subsequent offset is possible through the automatic operation of systems and controls, then night ventilation strategy is not included in the building energy asset rating.
NOS define the measurable performance objectives that an individual in a given occupation is expected to achieve. NOS is a set of skills, knowledge, and understanding developed by companies across the UK. It outlines the skills, knowledge, and understanding required to operate well in the workplace.
In England and Wales, NVQs are vocational awards earned through assessment and training. They are known as Scottish Vocational Qualifications in Scotland (SVQ). They are practical qualifications that are based on the ability to perform a task. NVQs are divided into five levels, ranging from Level 1 (basic job activities) to Level 5 (senior management).
An OCDEA is a trained and qualified person who can do building regulatory calculations and generate EPCs for newly constructed homes.
Oriented Strand Board (OSB), also known as waferboard, Sterling board or Exterior board (UK), and SmartPly (UK & Ireland), is an engineered wood product made by laying wood strands (flakes) in certain orientations. It may have a rough and varied appearance, with individual strips (about 2.5 by 15 cm (approximately 1 in by 6 in) lying unevenly over each other.
PEAs are developed from SAP calculations and are issued for each new home that is to be sold before it is finished.
Professional liability insurance protects professionals from having to pay compensation to clients as a result of difficulties with their job.
PIV is a fan system that forces low-pressure air into a building; in most home scenarios, this air is drawn from the warm air in a loft space.
PL insurance protects against loss or damage to third-party property or persons as a result of a company's operations.
It's used interchangeably with the word "dwelling."
Pressure tests are used to detect uncontrolled air leakage channels within the external envelope of a home, and they are required by Building Regulations in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland.
PV modules, which can be installed onto structures, convert sunlight directly into DC electricity.
Robust Details Limited, a UKAS registered product certification organisation with the number 4171, certifies that the indicated Robust Details can be used instead of pre-completion sound testing (PCT) to establish compliance with Requirement E1 in Schedule 1 of the Building Regulations (England and Wales).
When the whole data set for a SAP calculation is not available, the government developed RDSAP for use in existing dwellings based on a site survey of the property.
The Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) is the professional association for architects in the United Kingdom. They collaborate with the government to increase the quality of design in public buildings, new residences, and new neighbourhoods.
RICS is a professional association whose members represent the property profession, providing guidance and support on a wide range of land, property, construction, and related environmental issues.
Each individual Energy Performance Certificate created when lodged in the central register receives an RRN, which is a unique reference number.
The RTPI is a professional organisation that represents town planners.
The SAP is the government of the United Kingdom's recommended technique for determining a home's energy rating. The initial edition was released in 1995, while newer versions were released in 1998, 2001, and 2005. It analyses expected annual energy expenses for space and water heating, as well as lights, starting in 2005. Emissions of CO2 are also calculated. In the United Kingdom, SAP 2005 has been used to verify new dwellings for compliance with building laws demanding energy and fuel conservation.
SBEM is a methodology for determining the energy efficiency of non-domestic structures (often referred to as commercial buildings)
SEDBUK is a nationwide database that provides boiler efficiency ratings.
A apartment that is designed to house a single family. This implies that it comes with its own kitchen and bathroom.
For use in energy calculations, an SFP is used to compute the annual energy use of fans and, when relevant, the gains to the building from the fans.
Operating Requirements for the Scheme — A document that all accrediting bodies must follow.
The SPF is the ratio of a device's useful energy output to its energy input, averaged over a heating season.
Sustainable (Urban) Drainage Systems
The TER is calculated using SAP software, which is used to ensure that building regulations are followed. It is a hypothetical statistic given in kg/m2/year that determines the maximum permissible emissions for a single dwelling, taking into consideration prior building rules, a government-set improvement factor (now 20%), and a fuel factor.
For energy calculations, the TFA is the sum of all floors, including the main building and any expansions that may be present.
Building design has become increasingly concerned with the issue of overheating. Building pleasant, low-energy buildings has become more difficult due to the need to cut energy use while coping with global climate change. While research has been focused on ways to raise indoor winter temperatures, this can result in lightweight, highly insulated structures that perform badly in the summer. The CIBSE Overheating Task Force was formed in response.
Using dynamic thermal analysis, TM59 is a systematic approach to estimating overheating risk for residential building designs (new-build or substantial refurbishment). Flats have been utilised to test the methods since they have a larger danger of overheating than residences.
The TMP is an overall value for a building's thermal mass, calculated from the admittance of various elements inside the structure.
TRVs are mounted on radiators and sense room temperature, allowing the homeowner to set the temperature to their preferred level of comfort.
The United Kingdom Accreditation Service is the government's single national accreditation agency for assessing organisations that provide certification, testing, inspection, and calibration services to internationally recognised standards. The assessors' competence, impartiality, and performance capabilities are demonstrated by their accreditation by UKAS.
The government assigns a UPRN to each building in thThe weighting factor depicts each category's contribution to the overall performance recognised and rewarded by the Code. The total available contribution from all categories is expressed as a percentage of the total available contribution. Raw environmental credit scores are multiplied by the weighting factor provided to each Category to produce an overall points score, which can then be totaled to produce an overall rating.
e UK that is unique to that property.
Carbon offset transactions outside of government-related regulThe Zero Carbon Hub aided in the mainstreaming of low- and zero-carbon housing. From 2016, the UK government had set a goal for all new homes to be carbon neutral. The Zero Carbon Hub was created to help people better understand the challenges, issues, and possibilities that come with designing, building, and selling low- and zero-carbon houses. It ceased operations on March 31, 2016.
ation schemes, i.e. offsets purchased by organisations desiring to offset their carbon on a voluntary basis, make up this portion of the carbon market.
The weighting factor depicts each category's contribution to the overall performance recognised and rewarded by the Code. The total available contribution from all categories is expressed as a percentage of the total available contribution. Raw environmental credit scores are multiplied by the weighting factor provided to each Category to produce an overall points score, which can then be totaled to produce an overall rating.
The Zero Carbon Hub aided in the mainstreaming of low- and zero-carbon housing. From 2016, the UK government had set a goal for all new homes to be carbon neutral. The Zero Carbon Hub was created to help people better understand the challenges, issues, and possibilities that come with designing, building, and selling low- and zero-carbon houses. It ceased operations on March 31, 2016.